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extraction of taxonomic relations from arabic text for ontology construction
Chapter 1 Introduction…2
Statement of the Problem4
Objectives…4
Main Objective4
Specific Objectives4
Importance of the Thesis5
Scope and Limitations5
Research Methodology6
Thesis Organization7
Chapter 2 Theoretical and Technical Foundation…9
Ontology……9
Structure and Components of Ontology10
Ontology learning12
Ontology Representation13
Resource Description Framework14
Web Ontology Language15
General Architecture for Text Engineering16
GATE Component Model16
JAPE Component18
Semantic Annotation18
Named Entity Recognition19
NER Approaches19
Formal Definition for Discovering Taxonomic Relations20
Performance Evaluation.21
Accuracy……21
Precision…21
Recall…21
F-measure…21
Summary……22
Chapter 3 Related Works24
Named Entity Recognition24
Rule Based and Statistical Approach24
Machine Learning-Based Approach26
Hybrid Approach27
Relations Extraction28
Ontology Construction and Learning31
Automatic Arabic Ontology Constructing31
Automatic English Ontology Construction33
Chapter 4 Automatically Constructing Domain Ontology from Arabic Text37
Approach Overview37
Pre-processing Stage38
Preparing the Corpus39
Encoding…39
Tokenization40
Normalization40
Stop-Word Removal41
Sentence Splitting42
NLP and Features Extraction42
Part-Of-Speech Tagging43
Morphological Analysis44
Terms Extraction Stage45
Lexical Resources for NER46
Transducer…47
Machine Learning Based NER47
Taxonomic Relation Extraction349
Defining the Semantic Taxonomic Relation Category50
Discovering the Actual Patterns51
Searching for Instances of s Relation using Patterns52
Transforming to Ontological Elements and Knowledge Representation52
Summary……52
Chapter 5 Implementation…54
Tools and Programs55
Pre-processing55
Datasets…55
Encoding…56
Normalization56
Stop-Word Removal57
Sentence Splitting57
Tokenization58
POS Tagging59
Light Stemming60
Terms Extraction61
Lexical Resources61
Machine Learning Based NER63
Taxonomic Relations Extraction64
Transformation of Annotated Text into Ontological Elements68
Summary…71
Chapter 6 Experimental Results and Evaluation…73
Experimental Setup73
Arabic News documents Corpus73
Data Pre-processing Results74
Terms Extraction Result75
Taxonomic Relations Extraction Result76
Ontology visualizer and Language Presentation77
Evaluation of the Approach79
Domain Expert Review VS the Proposed Approach79
Named Entities Recognition and Human Evaluation79
Taxonomic Relations Extraction and Human Evaluation81
Using Reasoner85
Summary87
Chapter 7 Conclusions and Future Work…89
Summary…89
Contribution90
Future Work90
References91
Appendix: JAPE Rules for Ontology Construction96
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