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Chapter 2 Literature Review6
Importance of date palm trees:6
Scientific Taxonomy of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)8
Scientific Classification8
Distributions and Ecology of Date palm8
Description of palm trees9
Importance of the Date palm trees10
Pest and disease of palm trees11
Red Palm Weevil (RPW)11
Biological Control of RPW by B.bassiana & M. anisopliae19
Importance of Beauveria bassiana:19
Importance of Metarhizium anisopliae21
Molecular identification of Entomopathogenic Fungi:23
Chapter 3 Materials and Methods25
Materials26
Chemicals and Reagents26
Equipments26
Methodology:27
Isolation of B. bassiana & M. aneosiplaia fungi27
Purification of fungi by using selective medium27
Sub-culturing:27
Spore suspension:27
Morphological Identification of Fungal Isolates28
Molecular Identification of fungi28
Laboratory Rearing29
Bioassay (Contact application of fungi):29
Data Collection and Statistical analysis.30
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion32
solation of B. bassiana & M. aneosipliae fungi:32
Morphological Characterization & Microscopic Examination for B. bassiana & M. aneosipliae fungi:33
Enrichment for two fungi and Spore Suspension34
Molecular Characterization for B. bassiana & M. anisopliae fungi.35
PCR amplification of ITS35
PCR amplification of ?-tubulin37
Laboratory Rearing for RPW.39
Bioassay (Contact application of fungi):41
Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to R. ferrugineus eggs:41
Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to R. ferrugineus larvae:41
Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to R. ferrugineus Adult:43
Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi to R. ferrugineus Adult male as vector to transfer infections into female46
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations53
Conclusion53
Recommendations for improving this study:53
The Reference List55
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