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Using Lean Tools to Reduce/Eliminate Waste in Housing Projects in Gaza Strip
Chapter 2: Literature review11
2.1. Waste in construction11
2.1.1. Definition of waste in construction12
2.1.2. Classification of waste in construction12
2.1.3 Causes of waste in construction14
2.1.4 Measurement of waste in construction16
2.1.5 Construction waste management strategies18
2.1.6 Concluding remarks20
2.2. The concept of lean construction21
2.2.1 Key characteristics and elements of lean construction23
2.2.2 Lean principles and lean thinking24
2.2.3 Three stages of lean construction25
2.3. Construction process waste emphasized by the lean approach26
2.4. Awareness level of lean construction27
2.5. Lean construction tools and features28
2.5.1. Last planner system30
2.5.2. Increased visualization33
2.5.3. Daily huddle meetings34
2.5.4. First run studies35
2.5.5. 5S Process36
2.5.6. Fail safe for quality and safety36
2.5.7. Concurrent engineering37
2.5.8. Value stream mapping38
2.6. Lean Approach in Sustainable Construction43
2.7. Factors affecting the implementation of lean tools in construction industry45
2.7.1 Benefits from adoption lean tools in construction industry47
2.7.1.1. Environmental benefits47
2.7.1.2. Economic benefits48
2.7.1.3. Social benefits49
2.7.2 Barriers and challenges to implement lean in construction industry53
2.7.2.1. Management barriers53
2.7.2.2. Financial barriers54
2.7.2.3. Educational barriers55
2.7.2.4. Governmental barriers55
2.7.2.5 Technical barriers56
2.7.2.6 Human barriers56
2.7.3 Critical success factor of implementing lean tools in construction projects60
2.7.3.1. People61
2.7.3.2. Organizational structure62
2.7.3.3. Supply chain63
2.7.3.4. Process64
2.7.3.5. Others64
2.8. Previous studies about lean in the Middle East68
2.9. Summary73
Chapter 3: Research methodology……...………………..………………………………..….....75
3.1. Research approach75
3.1.1 Quantitative method76
3.1.2 Qualitative method…77
3.1.3 Qualitative and quantitative method (Mixed method)77
3.1.4 Choice of research methodology and research method………………………………79
3.1.5 The research framework……………………………………………………………...83
3.2. Target population and sampling method……………...…………………………………85
3.2.1 Sample size…………………………………………………………………………...87
3.3. Questionnaire design and development…88
3.3.1. Literature review…………………………………………………………………...88
3.3.2 The questionnaire survey…………………………………………………………..89
3.3.3 Research strategy for the questionnaire survey of the study………………………90
3.3.3.1. Face validity.94
3.3.3.2. Pre-testing the questionnaire98
3.3.3.3. Pilot study100
3.3.3.4. Final amendment to the questionn103
3.4. Data analysis105
3.4.1 Descriptive statistics analysis108
3.4.1.1. Average index method108
3.4.1.2. Relative Importance Index (RII)110
3.4.1.3. Standard Deviation (SD)…………...…………………………………………..111
3.4.1.4. Factor Analysis (FA)…………………………………………………………...112
3.4.2 Inferential statistics126
3.4.2.1. Parametric tests126
3.4.2.2. Nonparametric tests127
3.5. Summary130
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