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Nitrate removal from water using activated carbon prepared from olive stone by microwave heating
Chapter 2 Literature review8
2.1. Introduction9
2.2. Nitrate9
2.2.1. Nitrate sources and chemistry9
2.2.2. Health effects of Nitrate9
2.2.3. Nitrate in Gaza strip10
2.2.4. Nitrate treatment techniques11
2.3. Adsorption15
2.3.1. Adsorption definition and operation15
. Types of adsorption16
2.3.3. Factors influencing adsorption18
2.3.3.1. Effects of surface polarity18
2.3.3.2. Effect of pH18
2.3.3.3. Effect of contact time19
2.3.3.4. Effect of adsorbent dosage19
2.3.3.5. Effect of initial concentration20
2.3.3.6. Effect of particle size20
2.3.3.7. Effect of temperature21
2.3.4. Adsorption isotherm21
2.3.4.1. Langmuir isotherm22
2.3.4.2. Freundlich isotherm23
2.3.5. Adsorption Kinetics24
2.4. Activated carbon26
2.4.1. Definition26
2.4.2. Precursors for preparation of activated carbon27
2.4.3. Preparation of activated carbon29
2.4.3.1. Chemical activation with conventional heating30
2.4.3.2. Chemical activation with microwave heating31
2.4.4. Factors affecting activated carbon preparation36
2.4.4.1. Radiation power36
2.4.4.2. Activation time37
2.4.4.3. Impregnation ratio39
2.4.5. Characteristics of activated carbon40
2.4.5.1. Surface area40
2.4.5.2. Bulk density41
2.4.5.3. Ash content42
2.4.6. Application of activated carbon in aqueous solution treatment42
2.5. Olives production44
2.5.1. Olive by-products45
2.5.2. Advantages of olive stones as precursor for activated carbon46
2.5.3. Olives mills in the Palestine46
Chapter 3 Research methodology48
3.1. Introduction49
3.2. Materials and equipment49
3.3. Experimental work50
3.3.1. Producing activated carbon52
3.3.1.1. Olive stone collection and pretreatment52
3.3.1.2. Carbonization of the precursor53
3.3.1.3. Activation of the char55
3.3.2. Characterization of the prepared activated carbon58
3.3.2.1. Carbon yield58
3.3.2.2. Surface area58
3.3.2.3. Bulk density59
3.3.2.4. ash content60
3.3.3. Optimization of activated carbon60
3.3.4. Nitrate adsorption experiments61
3.3.4.1. Determination method of nitrate ion concentration61
3.3.4.2. Nitrate stock solution preparation62
3.3.4.3. Factors affecting adsorption63
3.3.4.4. Adsorption isotherm models65
3.3.4.5. Kinetics studies66
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